Experimental evidence for sterile neutrino?
Many physicists are somewhat disappointed to the results from LHC: the expected discovery of Higgs has been seen as the main achievement of LHC hitherto. Much more was expected. To my opinion there is no reason for disappointment. The exclusion of the standard SUSY at expected energy scale is very far reaching negative result. Also the fact that Higgs mass is too small to be stable without fine tuning is of great theoretical importance. The negative results concerning heavy dark matter candidates are precious guidelines for theoreticians. The non-QCD like behavior in heavy ion collisions and proton-ion collisions is bypassed my mentioning something about AdS/CFT correspondence and non-perturbative QCD effects. I tend to see these effects as direct evidence for M89 hadron physics (see this).
In any case, something interesting has emerged quite recently. Resonaances tells that the recent analysis of X-ray spectrum of galactic clusters claims the presence of monochromatic 3.5 keV photon line. The proposed interpretation is as a decay product of sterile 7 keV neutrino transforming first to a left-handed neutrino and then decaying to photon and neutrino via a loop involving W boson and electron. This is of course only one of the many interpretations. Even the existence of line is highly questionable.
One of the poorly understood aspects of TGD is right-handed neutrino, which is obviously the TGD counterpart of the inert neutrino.
- The old idea is that covariantly constant right handed neutrino could generate N=2 super-symmetry in TGD Universe. In fact, all modes of induced spinor field would generate super-conformal symmetries but electroweak interactions would break these symmetries for the modes carrying non-vanishing electroweak quantum numbers: they vanish for νR. This picture is now well-established at the level of WCW geometry (see this): super-conformal generators are labelled angular momentum and color representations plus two conformal weights: the conformal weight assignable to the light-like radial coordinate of light-cone boundary and the conformal weight assignable to string coordinate. It seems that these conformal weights are independent. The third integer labelling the states would label genuinely Yangian generators: it would tell the poly-locality of the generator with locus defined by partonic 2-surface: generators acting on single partonic 2-surface, 2 partonic 2-surfaces, ...
- It would seem that even the SUSY generated by νR must be badly broken unless one is able to invent dramatically different interpretation of SUSY. The scale of SUSY breaking and thus the value of the mass of right-handed neutrino remains open also in TGD. In lack of better one could of course argue that the mass scale must be CP2 mass scale because right-handed neutrino mixes considerably with the left-handed neutrino (and thus becomes massive) only in this scale. But why this argument does not apply also to left handed neutrino which must also mix with the right-handed one!
- One can of course criticize the proposed notion of SUSY: wonder whether fermion + extremely weakly interacting νR at same wormhole throat (or interior of 3-surface) can behave as single coherent entity as far spin is considered (see this)?
- The condition that the modes of induced spinor field have a well-defined electromagnetic charge eigenvalue (see this) requires that they are localized at 2-D string world sheets or partonic 2-surfaces: without this condition classical W boson fields would mix the em charged and neutral modes with each other. Right-handed neutrino is an exception since it has no electroweak couplings. Unless right-handed neutrino is covariantly constant, the modified gamma matrices can however mix the right-handed neutrino with the left handed one and this can induce transformation to charged mode. This does not happen if each modified gamma matrix can be written as a linear combination of either M4 or CP2 gamma matrices and modified Dirac equation is satisfied separately by M4 and CP2 parts of the modified Dirac equation.
- Is the localization of the modes other than covariantly constant neutrino to string world sheets a consequence of dynamics or should one assume this as a separate condition? If one wants similar localization in space-time regions of Euclidian signature - for which CP2 type vacuum extremal is a good representative - one must assume it as a separate condition. In number theoretic formulation string world sheets/partonic 2-surfaces would be commutative/co-commutative sub-manifolds of space-time surfaces which in turn would be associative or co-associative sub-manifolds of imbedding space possessing (hyper-)octonionic tangent space structure. For this option also
right-handed neutrino would be localized to string world sheets. Right-handed neutrino would be covariantly constant only in 2-D sense.
One can consider the possibility that νR is de-localized to the entire 4-D space-time sheet. This would certainly modify the interpretation of SUSY since the number of degrees of freedom would be reduced for νR.
- Non-covariantly constant right-handed neutrinos could mix with left-handed neutrinos but not with charged leptons if the localization to string world sheets is assumed for modes carrying non-vanishing electroweak quantum numbers. This would make possible the decay of right-handed to neutrino plus photon, and one cannot exclude the possibility that νR has mass 7 keV.
Could this imply that particles and their spartners differ by this mass only? Could it be possible that practically unbroken SUSY could be there and we would not have observed it? Could one imagine that sfermions have annihilated leaving only states consisting of fundamental fermions? But shouldn't the total rate for the annihilation of photons to hadrons be two times the observed one? This option does not sound plausible.
What if one assumes that given sparticle is charactrized by the same p-adic prime as corresponding particle but is dark in the sense that it corresponds to non-standard value of Planck constant. In this case sfermions would not appear in the same vertex with fermions and one could escape the most obvious contradictions with experimental facts. This leads to the notion of shadron: shadrons would be (see this) obtained by replacing quarks with dark squarks with nearly identical masses. I have asked whether so called X and Y bosons having no natural place in standard model of hadron could be this kind of creatures.
- Nuclear string model (see this) predicts that nuclei are string like objects formed from nucleons connected by color magnetic flux tubes having quark and antiquark at their ends. These flux tubes are long and define the "magnetic body" of nucleus. Quark and antiquark have opposite em charges for ordinary nuclei. When they have different charges one obtains exotic state: this predicts entire spectrum of exotic nuclei for which statistic is different from what proton and neutron numbers deduced from em charge and atomic weight would suggest. Exotic nuclei and large values of Planck constant could make also possible cold fusion
- What the mass difference between these states is, is not of course obvious. There is however an experimental finding (see Analysis of Gamma Radiation from a Radon Source: Indications of a Solar Influence) that nuclear decay rates oscillate with a period of year and the rates correlate with the distance from Sun. A possible explanation is that the gamma rays from Sun in few keV range excite the exotic nuclear states with different decay rate so that the average decay rate oscillates. Note that nuclear excitation energies in keV range would also make possible interaction of nuclei with atoms and molecules (see this).
- This allows to consider the possibility that the decays of exotic nuclei in galactic clusters generates 3.5 keV photons. The obvious question is why the spectrum would be concentrated at 3.5 keV in this case (second question is whether the energy is really concentrated at 3.5 keV: a lot of theory is involved with the analysis of the experiments). Do the energies of excited states depend on the color bond only so that they would be essentially same for all nuclei? Or does single excitation dominate in the spectrum? Or is this due to the fact that the thermal radiation leaking from the core of stars excites predominantly single state? Could E=3.5 keV correspond to the maximum intensity for thermal radiation in stellar core? If so, the temperature of the exciting radiation would be about T≈ E/3≈ 1.2× 107 K. This in the temperature around which formation of Helium by nuclear fusion has begun: the temperature at solar core is around 1.57× 107 K.