Monday, November 20, 2017

A potential missing link in prebiotic chemistry

In the attempts to understand pre-biology the basic challenge is to understand how the needed short RNA, DNA, and amino-acid sequences managed to form. Phosphorylation is known to be crucial for this process and means energization in standard bio-chemistry. Organic phosphate possesses somewhat mysterious high energy phosphate bond, which stores energy and makes possible metabolism: in metabolic ATP with three phosphates transforms to ADP with two phosphates by giving one phosphate with high energy phosphate bond to the acceptor molecule, which is therefore phosphorylated.

In the recent biology phosphorylation of various biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, amino-acid sequences is catalyzed by proteins known as enzymes known as phosphorylases. Kinase is one particular enzyme transferring phosphate from ATP to the acceptor molecule. Proteins consist of amino-acids and would not be present in RNA world, which serves almost as a standard model for the prebiotic period. Ribozymes are catalysts formed from RNA but they catalyze typically only the reversal of phosphorylation.

1. The problem and its possible solution

The phosphorylation of short nucleotide sequences and amino-acid sequences, and also lipids making possible formation of small cell membrane like structures is necessary for the formation of larger structures from their building bricks. As noticed, ribozymes catalyze only dephosphorylation. How RNA was phosphorylated during RNA era or were the amino-acid present all the time?

The popular article with the title Potential 'missing link' in chemistry that led to life on Earth discovered tells about a mechanism allowing phosphorylation during RNA era in absence of enzymes. The discovery is that an organic molecule known as diamidophosphate (DAP) having chemical formula PO2(NH2)2-1 could do the job in presence of water and imidazol. Imidazol has chemical formula C3N2H4 and is a molecule possessing aromatic hetero-cycle consisting of 3 C atoms and 2 N atoms.

Remark: Pyrimidine in turn is aromatic hetero-6-cycle consisting of 4 C atoms and 2 N atoms and having formula C4N2 H4. DNA has as basic building bricks phosphates PO4- having valence bonds with deoxy-ribose molecules (containing 5-rings with 4 C atoms and one O). Each sugar has valence bond with N of nucleoside C, T, A or G. C and T are pyrimidines with single aromatic 6-ring and A and G are purines obtained by fusing imidazol 5-ring and pyrimidine 6-ring to obtain purine double ring. By replacing one OH of de-oxyribose of DNA with H one obtains RNA.

DAP could solve several problems simultaneously: how the short sequences of RNA (later DNA) and amino-acids were formed, and how the predecessors of cell membranes emerged. It is not however clear to me whether this process could have been fast enough or whether the slowness only made the first step painful.

2. How the discovery could relate to TGD inspired quantum biology?

It is interesting to interpret the discovery in TGD framework. The basic question is whether the presence of dark atoms and electrons in bio-molecule distinguish between atomic physics, in-organic chemistry, and organic chemistry. Usually organic chemistry is defined to be chemistry of carbon compounds, typically hydrocarbons. Could it be that the formation of hydrocarbons involves dark variants of proton and electron identified as heff=n× h variants of ordinary proton and electron?

2.1 From atomic physics to chemistry

How could one proceed from atomic physics to atomic physics to chemistry in TGD framework. The basic question is how to understand valence bond: it is not at all clear whether mere Schrödinger equation allows to understand it. Could the emergence of dark electrons allow their delocalization and formation of valence bonds? It has been known for decades that the heating of rare-earth metals leads to a mysterious loss of some valence electrons and the explanation would be the energy provided by heating kicks them to higher energy states by making some valence electrons dark (see this). The explanation would be in terms of dark electron orbitals for valence electrons which have radii scaled up by factor n2 and are analogous to Rydberg states identified as orbitals with large value of principal quantum number and having very large radius.

The dark variants of atoms have binding energy scale reduced by factor 1/n2 so that their formation requires energy feed (perhaps radiation at required frequencies). One or more valence electrons of ordinary atom could be dark so that the size of the orbital is scaled up by factor n2. The valence bond central for chemistry in general and in particular for basic biopolymers could contain dark electrons delocalized because of larger value of n than for the non-valence electrons. Note that one could be n=n0> 1 for ordinary atoms making in principle possible atoms with n< n0 with anomalous large binding energy also for the filled shells as the findings of Randel Mills indeed suggest (see this).

Surprisingly, dark electrons would be essential in ordinary chemistry thought to reduce to standard model physics! The increase of n reduces binding energy scale and requires energy feed. This would allow to understand why anabolism - that is generation of biopolymers from their building blocks by generating valence bonds - requires energy feed and why catabolism - the splitting of biopolymers to their building blocks by splitting the valence bonds liberates energy.

The valence bonds would be classified by the value of n and it is quite possible that in organic chemistry the values of
n are larger than in in-organic chemistry. Could this mean that valence bonds H and C and N and O have higher values in bio-chemistry? Also the valence bonds between O and H in water could have larger value of n.

To sum up, the transition from atomic physics to ordinary chemistry involved generation of dark electrons
associated with valence bonds. The value of n for dark electrons can vary and allow hierarchy of evolutionary steps with increasingly delocalized valence electrons.

2.2 From chemistry to bio-chemistry

What about the step leading to a genuine bio-chemistry involving genetic code? Magnetic body (MB) is the basic aspect of biochemistry according to TGD. Pollack effect leading to the formation of negatively charged regions - exclusion zones (EZs) - would involve generation of dark protons at magnetic flux tubes of MB with electrons left to the EZ - possible as ordinary particles (see this). Also Pollack effect requires feeding of energy, say as irradiation by photons.

DNA is stable against spontaneous hydration only inside cell membrane. This suggests that the EZs of Pollack containing partially dark water molecules satisfying effectively the stoichiometry H3/2O allowed to stabilize DNA. Therefore EZs are excellent candidates for the predecessors of cell.

The TGD inspired proposal is that DNA strand for which each phosphate has negative unit charge is companied by dark analog of DNA consisting of dark protons such that the states of 3-proton units are in one-one correspondence with DNA, RNA, tRNA and amino-acids and the degeneracies of the vertebrate genetic code (number of codons coding for given amino-acid) come out correctly (see this). A more general picture is that ordinary chemistry is kind of shadow for the dynamics of dark matter at magnetic flux tubes doing its best to emulate it. This would explain also why genetic code has also other variants.

It would be the emergence of dark protons with large enough value of n, which would distinguish between ordinary chemistry and bio-chemistry. Water is basic element of life and hydrogen bonding is responsible for the formation of water clusters - certainly one of the key aspects of bio-chemistry. Hydrogen bonds appear between highly electronegative atoms such as O, N, and F (electronegativity is roughly the tendency to attract electrons). What distinguishes hydrogen bond from valence bond is that it is proton rather than electron, which is delocalized. This suggests that the delocalized proton is dark proton at magnetic flux tube connecting the hydrogen bonded molecules.

2.3 The emergence of metabolism

In the proposed framework the first basic aspect of life would be the generation of dark electrons and protons using energy feed and their transfer between molecules and their generation by providing the needed energy.

  1. Metabolism (anabolism) would provide the energy needed to transform ordinary atom (that is electron bound to it) to a dark atom with large value of heff/h=n. This requires energy since the binding energy is proportional to 1/n2 and reduced in the process. This is quite generally true for all dark variants of quantum states. One can say that the increase of the complexity of the system by increasing n characterizing its "IQ" requires metabolic energy (in adelic physics "IQ" has concrete interpretation as cognitive resources). Therefore the first steps of prebiotic life was the emergence of energy feed mechanism making possible the increase of n.

  2. I have considered the possibility that the period of prebiotic life preceding the the emergence of chemical storage of energy used dark nucleosynthesis (see this) as the source of metabolic energy. The recently discovered life-like properties of a very simple system consisting of negatively charged plastic balls in the plasma of Ar+ ions allows to develop rather detailed ideas about this phase of life.
    (see this).

  3. A fundamental question is about the step leading to the chemical storage of metabolic energy to valence bonds with non-standard value of n. Solar radiation could have generated both negatively charged EZs identifiable as possible predecessors of cell membrane and valence bonded molecules storing metabolic energy.

2.4 About bio-catalysis

Without bio-catalysis biochemical reactions leading to the formation of biopolymers and cell membrane would be quite too slow. Here phosphorylation enters the game.

  1. The TGD based model for bio-catalysis relies on the temporary reduction of heff =n×h liberating energy kicking the reactants over potential wall. After this step the catalyst - at least in the ideal situation - receives the energy and the atom becomes dark again.

  2. Acid catalyst gives a proton and base catalyst gives an electron. Most bio-catalysts are acid catalysts
    The TGD based interpretation should rely on the possibility of dark valence electrons and dark protons at flux tubes. Since base catalysts are associated with non-organic chemistry, the identification of the electron given by base catalyst as dark electron looks natural. Acid catalysts would give dark proton.

Bio-catalysts are usually activated by phosphorylation and de-activated by de-phosphorylation but there are exceptions to this rule. This can be understood if the catalyst activates a molecule acting as a switch for a reaction. Catalysts related to phosphorylation are known as phosphotransferases and contain kinases transferring phosphate from ATP to the acceptor molecules.

Phosphatases remove phosphate from the target molecule: they are hydrolases and use water to remove the phosphate and to hydrate the molecule.

2.5 The difference between organic and inorganic phosphates

Phosphate appears as too variants: organic and inorganic.

  1. Organic phosphates bound to biomolecules have charge -1. Some electrons of organic phosphate ion have transformed to valence electrons and are therefore dark. Also some protons - one dark proton per dark electron to not affect the observed charge in short scales - would be dark and at the magnetic body of the organic phosphate. Both dark protons and dark electrons would be present and give rise to somewhat mysterious high energy phosphate bond.

  2. Free phosphate in water environment appears in ionized variants HnPO4n-4 and is regarded as in-organic and have negative charge 4-n. In inorganic phosphate some dark protons and ordinary electrons giving rise to the negative charge have combined to hydrogen atoms. The larger the number of hydrogens is, the higher the level of inorganicity is.

    The fractions of variants of free phosphate in water depend on pH characterizing the density of protons present. Could pH in fact characterize the fraction of dark protons at magnetic flux tubes? Or could it also characterize the fraction of dark hydrogen atoms present. Similar question applies to the counterparts of pH for other biologically important ions.

2.6 About phosphorylation and the interpretation of DAP

At chemical level phosphorylation attaches phosphate ion to the hydroxyl group (R-OH) of the acceptor molecule. At deeper level phosphorylation would give dark electron to the acceptor molecule and dark proton to its MB. Phosphorylation would increase the quantum coherence length: the formation of short RNA, amino-acid sequences and of cell membrane like structures would be a basic example of this.

What about the interpretation of the role of DAP in this framework? DAP has charge -1 as also the phosphate bound to DNA and RNA have (in ATP the outermost phosphate has charge -2). DAP is very similar to the phosphate in DNA and RNA and expected to carry high energy phosphate bond. In TGD framework it would possess both dark valence electrons and dark protons at magnetic flux tubes with only one ordinary electron responsible for the charge of DAP. Due to the properties of phosphatase the phosphorylation would be very simple process at the level of dark electron and proton. Hence DAP and imidazole could make possible the phosphorylation.

2.7 About dephosphorylation and phosphoryl transfer

The scanning of web shows that some sources talk of dephosphorylation and some sources about phosphoryl transfer reactions and it remained unclear to me whether the two terms really have the same meaning. In any case, in TGD framework one can distinguish between these notion. Dephosphorylation could mean either phosphoryl transfer (transfer of phosphate between donor and acceptor molecules) or "dropping" of organic phosphate to water environment and giving it negative additional negative charge (the transfer would be now to water environment) and making it inorganic.

  1. Phosphoryl would transfer removes PO4- group and presumably also the associated dark proton from the target and transfers them to the acceptor molecule and its MB. I have proposed that reconnection of flux tubes transforms the flux tubes entering to the donor molecule to that associated with the acceptor molecule so that dark proton is automatically transferred. In ATP-ADP process the phosphate group and presumably also the dark proton and electron would be transferred to the acceptor molecule from ATP. ADP is dephosphorylated and acceptor phosphorylated.

  2. In "dropping" the outcome would be in-organic phosphate denoted by Pi, which is a mixture of HPO4-2 and H2PO4-1. One interpretation is that 1 or 2 dark protons from magnetic flux tubes have transformed to ordinary protons and combined with electrons to form hydrogen atoms. This operation would reduce the number of dark particle and thus the "evolutionary level" of the system.
Dephosphorylation is known to lead to a decomposition of the donor molecule to smaller structures, indicating the reduction of heff/h and thus of quantum coherence length. In RNA world dephosphorylation would be catalyzed by ribozymes and in some important cases also in the recent biology. Dephosphorylation would reduce quantum coherence length and lead to the decomposition of structures to smaller ones: mRNA splicing is one example of this. Catabolism of nutrients and the decay process of dead organic matter provide further basic examples.

Catabolism of nutrients and the decay process of dead organic matter suggest what happens. In the first preliminary step of catabolism catalysts are involved. At the second step of catabolism inorganic phosphate is formed, which suggests that the number of dark protons is reduced in the process. This conforms with the reduction of the value of heff/h=n.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Thursday, November 16, 2017

More about life-like properties found in very simple system

As I told in the previous posting, I encountered in FB a link to a rather interesting article by physicists working in Emory University. The title of the popular article was " Physicists show how lifeless particles can become 'life-like' by switching behaviors" (see this). The article " Emergent bi-stability and Switching in a Nonequilibrium Crystal by Guram Gogia and Justin Burton is published in PRL and can be found in ArXiv (see this). Justin Burton leads a physics group working at Emory University. Guram Gogia who made the discovery is her student.

The development of TGD inspired model for the finding led to a dramatic progress in the TGD inspired models for biocontrol and prebiotic evolution so that an extended version of the earlier posting is in order.

The physicists working in Emory University have made very interesting discovery. The very simple system studied exhibits what authors call self-organized bi-stability making phase transitions between crystal-like and gas-like phases. The expectation was that only single stable state would appear. Neuron groups can also have collective bi-stability (periodic synchronous firing). Neurons are however themselves bi-stable systems: now the particles are plastic balls and are not bi-stable. One could say that the system exhibits life-like properties. The most remarkable life-like property is metabolism required by the sequence of phase transitions involving dissipation.

Where does the metabolic energy come from? The proposal that stochastic resonance feeds the needed metabolic energy leaves open its source. The resemblance with living cells suggests that the attempt to interpret the findings solely in terms of non-equilibrium thermodynamics might miss something essential - the metabolism.

TGD provides a general model for living systems relying on the notion of magnetic body (MB), hierarchy of Planck constants heff=n× h labelling phases of ordinary matter identifiable as dark matter, and the realization of control and communication signals between MB and biological body using dark photons. Bio-photons would result in the transformation of dark photons to ordinary photons and EEG would rely on dark cyclotron photons and generalized Josephson photons from cell membrane (also bio-photons would relate to them). Bose Einstein condensates of dark variants of biologically important ions or their Cooper pairs are also in a central role. The assumption hgr=heff, where hgr is so called gravitational Planck constant, implies that the energy spectrum of dark cyclotron photons is universal (no dependence on the mass of ion) and naturally in visible and UV range characterizing molecular transition energies.

One can develop a detailed TGD inspired model for the findings leading to an identification of new control tools of MB (MB). Quantum criticality makes it possible for MB can adapt to the biological body (BB) so that it can generated cyclotron frequencies, which correspond to the characteristic frequencies of BB: forced oscillations serve as a control tool of MB. Also the analogs of Alfwen waves identifiable as analogs of string vibrations allow to control the systems at the nodes of the flux tube network.

In the system studied the crystal-like phase corresponds to a connected flux tube network associated having plastic balls as nodes, and gas-like phase to a totally disconnected network with connecting flux tube pairs split into flux loops. That freezing would require energy (going to the magnetic energy of flux tube network in heff increasing phase transition) does not conform with the thermodynamics of classical systems. That superfluid Helium has similar strange feature at low enough temperatures suggests that the system is indeed quantal. Cyclotron Bose-Einstein (BE) condensates of Cooper pairs of Ar+ ions, protons, and electrons are proposed to be relevant. Encouragingly, the ratio of frequencies for horizontal and vertical oscillations frequencies of crystal-like structure is equal to the ratio of cyclotron frequencies for Ar+ and proton.

One of the key challenges is to identify the the prebiotic source of metabolic energy. The sequences of dark protons identifiable as dark nuclei give in TGD framework rise to analogs of DNA, RNA, tRNA, and amino-acids. The model predicts the degeneracies of vertebrate genetic code correctly. In TGD based model for "cold fusion" as dark nucleosynthesis (DNS) serving as a predecessor of ordinary nucleosynthesis dark nuclei transform to ordinary nuclei liberating almost all nuclear binding energy. Dark analogs of DNA, RNA, tRNA, and amino-acids would therefore provide also the sought for prebiotic source of metabolic energy in the system studied: the egg-or-hen problem about whether the genes or metabolism came first, would be resolved.

See the updated article Life-like properties observed in a very simple system or the chapter of "TGD based view about living matter and remote mental interactions" with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Sunday, November 05, 2017

Life-like properties observed in a very simple system

The physicists working in Emory University have made very interesting discovery decribed in a popular article and in more technical article by the Guran Gogia and Justin Burton.

The very simple system studied exhibits what authors call self-organized bistability making phase transitions between crystal like and liquid like states. The expectation was that only single stable state would appear. Neuron groups can also have collective bistability (periodic synchronous firing). Neurons are however themselves bistable systems: now the particles are plastic balls and are not bistable. One could say that the system exhibits life-like properties. The most remarkable life-like property is metabolism required by the sequence of phase transitions involving dissipation. Where does the metabolic energy come from?

Why the finding is interesting from TGD point of view is that TGD provides a general model for living systems, a general quantal interpretation of metabolism, and suggests also new sources of metabolic energy. The system also has features bringing in mind living cell so that the attempt to interpret the findings solely in terms of non-equilibrium thermodynamics might miss something essential. TGD based model forces to study seriously the possibility that dark nucleosynthesis could be a source of metabolic energy in living matter.

See the updated article Life-like properties observed in a very simple system or the chapter of "TGD based view about living matter and remote mental interactions" with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Friday, November 03, 2017

Mysteriously disappearing valence electrons of rare Earth metals and hierarchy of Planck constants

The evidence for the hierarchy of Planck constants heff/h=n labelling dark matter as phases with non-standard value of Planck constant is accumulating.

The latest piece of evidence comes from the well-known mystery (not to me until now!) related to rare Earth metals. Some valence electrons of these atoms mystically "disappear" when the atom is heated. This transition is knonw as Lifshitz transition. The popular article Where did those electrons go? Decades-old mystery solved claims that the mystery of disappearing valence electrons is finally resolved. The popular article is inspired by the article Lifshitz transition from valence fluctuations in YbAl3 by Chatterjee et al published in Nature Communications.

Dark matter and hierarchy of Planck constants

The mysterious disappearance of valence electrons brings in mind dark atoms with Planck constant heff=n×h. Dark matter corresponds in TGD Universe to a hierarchy with levels labelled by the value of heff. One prediction is that the binding energy of dark atom is proportional to 1/heff2 and thus behaves like 1/n2 and decreases with n.

n=1 is the first guess for ordinary atoms but just a guess. The claim of Randell Mills is that hydrogen has exotic ground states with larger binding energy. A closer examination suggests n=n0=6 for ordinary states of atoms. The exotic states would have n<6 and therefore higher binding energy scale (see this and this).

This leads to a model of biocatalysis in which reacting molecules contain dark hydrogen atoms with non-standard value of n larger than usual so that their binding energy is lower. When dark atom or electron becomes ordinary binding energy is liberated and can kick molecules over the potential wall otherwise preventing the reaction to occur. After that the energy is returned and the atom becomes dark again. Dark atoms would be catalytic switches. Metabolic energy feed would take care of creating the dark states. In fact, heff/h=n serves as a kind of intelligence quotient for a system in TGD inspired theory of consciousness.

Are the mysteriously dissappearing valence electrons in rare earth metals dark?

Could the heating of the rare earth atoms transform some valence electrons to dark electrons with heff/h=n larger than for ordinary atom? The natural guess is that thermal energy kicks the valence electron to a dark orbital with a smaller binding energy? The prediction is that there should be critical temperatures behaving like Tcr= T0(1- n20/n2). Also transitions between different dark states are possible. These transitions might be also induced by irradiating the atom with photons with the transition energy between different dark states having same quantum numbers.

ORMEs as one manner to end up with dark mattter in TGD sense

I ended up to the discovery of dark matter hierarchy and eventually to adelic physics, where heff/h=n has number theoretic interpretation along several roads starting from anomalous findings. One of these roads began from the claim about the existence of strange form of matter by David Hudson. Hudson associated with these strange materials several names: White Gold, monoatomic elements, and ORMEs (orbitally re-arranged metallic elements). Any colleague without suicidical tendencies would of course refuse to touch anything like White Gold even with a 10 meter long pole but I had nothing to lose anymore.

My question was how to explain these elements if they are actually real. If all valence electrons of this kind of element are dark these element have effectively full electron shells as far as ordinary electrons are considered and behave like noble gases with charge in short scales and do not form molecules. Therefore "monoatomic element" is justified. Of course, only the electrons in the outermost shell could be dark and in this case the element would behave chemically and also look like an atom with smaller atomic number Z. So called Rydberg atoms for which valence electrons are believed to reside at very large orbitals could be actually dark atoms in the proposed sense.

Obviously also ORME is an appropriate term since some valence electrons have re-arranged orbitally. White Gold would be Gold but with dark valence electron. The electron configuration of Gold is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1. There is single unpaired electron with principal quantum number m=6 and this would be dark for White Gold and chemically like Platinum (Pt), which indeed has white color.

Biologically important ions as analogs of ORMEs

In TGD inspired biology the biologically important atoms H+, Li+, Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++ are assumed to be dark in the proposed sense. But I have not specified darkness in precise sense. Could these ions have dark valence electrons with scaled up Compton length and forming macroscopic quantum phases. For instance, Cooper pairs could become possible and make possible high Tc superconductivity with members of Cooper pair at parallel flux tubes. The earlier proposal that dark hydrogen atoms make possible biocatalysis generalizes: at higher evolutionary levels also the heavier dark atoms behaving like noble gases would become important in bio-catalysis. Interestingly, Rydberg atoms have been proposed to be important for bio-catalysis.

To sum up, if TGD view is correct , an entire spectroscopy of dark atoms and partially dark molecules is waiting to be discovered and irradiation by light with energies corresponding to excitation energies of dark states could be the manner to generate dark atomic matter. Huge progress in quantum biology could also take place. But are colleagues mature enough to check whether TGD view is correct?

See the article Mysteriously disappearing valence electrons of rare Earth metals and hierarchy of Planck constants or the chapter Quantum criticality and dark matter of "Hyperfinite factors, p-adic length scale hypothesis, and dark matter hierarchy".

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Thursday, November 02, 2017

Dark nucleosynthesis and stellar evolution

The temperature of the solar core is rather near to the scale of dark nuclear binding energy. This co-incidence inspires interesting questions about the dark nucleosynthesis in the stellar evolution.

1. Some questions inspired by a numerical co-incidence

The temperature at solar core is about T=1.5× 107 K corresponding to the thermal energy E= 3T/2= 2.25 keV obtained by a scaling factor 2-11 energy ∼ 5 MeV, which is the binding energy scale for the ordinary nuclei. That this temperature corresponds to the binding energy scale of dark nuclei might not be an accident.

That the temperature in the stellar core is of the same order of magnitude as dark nuclear binding energy is a highly intriguing finding and encourages to ask whether dark nuclear fusion could be the key step in the production of ordinary nuclei and what is the relation of dark nucleosynthesis to ordinary nucleosynthesis.

  1. Could dark nucleosynthesis occur also pre-stellar evolution and thus proceed differently from the usual p-p-cycle involving fusion processes? The resulting ordinary nuclei would undergo only ordinary nuclear reactions and decouple from the dark dynamics. This does not exclude the possibility that the resulting ordinary nuclei form nuclei of nuclei with dark protons: this seems to occur also in nuclear transmutations.

  2. There would be two competing effects. The higher the temperature, the less stable dark nuclei and the longer the dark nuclear strings. At lower temperatures dark nuclei are more stable but transform to ordinary nuclei decoupling from the dark dynamics. The liberated nuclear binding energy however raises the temperature and makes dark nuclei less stable so that the production of ordinary nuclei in this manner would slow down.

    At what stage ordinary nuclear reactions begin to dominate over dark nucleosynthesis? The conservative and plausible looking view is that p-p cycle is indeed at work in stellar cores and has replaced dark nucleosynthesis when dark nuclei became thermally unstable.

    The standard view is that solar temperature makes possible tunnelling through Coulomb wall and thus ordinary nuclear reactions. The temperature is few keVs and surprisingly small as compared to the height of Coulomb wall Ec∼ Z1Z2e2/L, L the size of the nucleus. There are good reasons to believe that this picture is correct. The co-incidence of the two temperatures would make possible the transition from dark nucleosynthesis to ordinary nucleosynthesis.

  3. What about dark nuclear reactions? Could they occur as reconnections of long magnetic flux tubes? For ordinary nuclei reconnections of short flux tubes would take place (recall the view about nuclei as two-sheeted structures). For ordinary nuclear the reactions at energies so low that the phase transition to dark phase (somewhat analogous to the de-confinement phase transition in QCD) is not energetically possible, the reactions would occur in nuclear scale.

  4. An interesting question is whether dark nucleosynthesis could provide a new manner to achieve ordinary nuclear fusion in laboratory. The system would heat itself to the temperatures required by ordinary nuclear fusion as it would do also during the pre-stellar evolution and when nuclear reactor is formed spontaneously (Oklo reactor).

2. Could dark nucleosynthesis affect the views about stellar evolution?

The presence of dark nucleosynthesis could modify the views about star formation, in particular about energy production in protostars and pre-main-sequence stars (PMS) following protostars in stellar evolution.

In protostars and PMSs the temperature is not yet high enough for the burning of hydrogen to 4He, and according to the standard model the energy radiated by the star consists of the gravitational energy liberated during the gravitational contraction. Could dark nucleosynthesis provide a new mechanism of energy production and could this energy be transferred from the protostar/PMS as dark energy along dark magnetic flux tubes?

Can one imagine any empirical evidence for the presence of dark nucleosynthesis in protostars and PMSs?

  1. The energy and matter produced in dark nucleosynthesis could partially leak out along dark magnetic flux tubes and give rise to astrophysical jets. Astrophysical jets indeed accompany protostars and the associated planetary and bipolar nebulae as well as PMSs (T Tauri stars and Herbig-Haro objects). The jets along flux tubes associated with hot spots at which dark nucleosynthesis would take place could provide also a mechanism for the transfer of angular momentum from the protostar/PMS.

  2. Spectroscopic observations of dense cores (protostar) not yet containing stars indicate that contraction occurs but the predicted expansion of the contracting region has not been observed (see this). The energy production by dark nucleosynthesis could increase pressure and slow down and even prevent the expansion of the contracting region.

How dark nucleosynthesis could affect the evolution of protostars and PMSs?
  1. In standard model the formation of accretion disk could be understood in terms of angular momentum conservation: spherical distribution of matter transforms to a planar one does not require large changes for the velocities tangential to the plane. The mechanism for how the matter from accretion disk spirals into star is however poorly understood.

  2. The TGD inspired model for galaxy formation suggests that the core region of the protostar is associated with a highly knotted cosmic string ("pearl in a necklace") forming the dark core of galaxy with constant density of dark matter (see this). The dark matter from the cosmic string would have leaked out from the cosmic string and transformed to ordinary matter already before the annihilation of quarks and antiquarks. The CP, P, and T asymmetries predicted by twistor lift of TGD would predict that there is a net quark (antiquark) number outside (inside) the cosmic string. The locally axisymmetric gravitational potential of the cosmic string would favour disk like rather than spherically symmetric matter distribution as the initial distribution of the baryonic matter formed in the hadronization from the quarks left from the annihilation.

    Quantitative model is needed to see whether dark fusion could contribute significantly to the energy production in protostars and PMSs and affect their evolution. The nuclear binding energy liberated in dark fusion would slow down the gravitational contraction and increase the duration of protostar and PMS phases. In standard model PMS phase is possible for masses varying from 2 to 8 solar masses. Dark nucleosynthesis could increase the upper bound for the mass of PMS from that predicted by the standard model.

See the article Cold fusion again or the chapter of "Hyper-finite factors, p-adic length scale hypothesis, and dark matter hierarchy" with the same title. See also the article Cold fusion, low energy nuclear reactions, or dark nuclear synthesis?.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.