Friday, February 02, 2018

How brain selectively remembers new places?

There was a very interesting link in Minding Brain related to the storage of new memories. The title of the popular article is "How brain selectively remembers new places?". The following represents TGD based view about what might happen.


  1. In TGD framework brain/body corresponds to 4-D geometric object classically - a space-time surface with complex topology (zero energy ontology, ZEO). Brain and biological body are accompanied by magnetic body (MB) defining a topological time evolution of flux tube network having neurons (and also body cells) as its nodes and it is MB, which seems to be of fundamental significance (see this and this). Memories are located in 4-D brain (body) for the first time to the time-place, where they were formed, later successful memory recalls form new copies of them.

  2. To remember is to see in time direction to geometric past. The signal sent from hippocampus backwards in geometric time scatters back in standard time direction: this is nothing but seeing in 4 dimensions. 4-D memory storage means that there is practically no limitations on memory storage since new storage capacity is created all the geometric time! Making careful distinction between experienced and geometric times allows to both avoid paradoxes and solve the paradoxes of existing theory.

    Remark: Also the possibility of quantum entanglement also increases exponentially the memory storage capacity (and destroys the dreams of AI afficionados about copying human consciousness as bits telling whether neuron fires or not to a computer file!).

  3. Brain is able to detect whether the sensory percept - say completely new place - is indeed new. Brain acts as novelty detector. This requires scanning of 4-D brain to see whether there are sensory percepts in geometric past, which share common features with the recent sensory percept. This requires high level conceptualization so that perceptive field is decomposed to objects with some attributes. If common objects are not found, the percept is regarded as something new. In this case a new symbolic memory representation about perceptive field is formed.

  4. This strongly suggests that the signal sent from hippocampus scatters back from brain of past and is then compared with the recent sensory percept. If they the signals are very similar - this might give rise to some kind of resonance - the experience is "I have seen this before". The information provided by the already existing memory is utilized. If not then sensory percept is regarded as new and memory representation is formed.

Where is this new memory representation constructed?
  1. The article suggests that locus coeruleus (LC) and area CA3 of hippocampus are involved. It was found that the modulation of CA3 by LC is was involved in the formation of new memory: if the modulation was prevented, no new memory was formed and the the mice behaved next day as if the place were still new.

  2. In ZEO the new memory would correspond to a collection of activated neurons in LC and CA3 accompanied by connected flux tube structure represented the new mental image as a quantum entangled structure - tensor network. This kind of mental images would have formed for some period of time in the brain of the mice and given rise to a 4-D representation of new place to be read later by sending signals backwards in geometric time.

See the article Emotions as sensory percepts about the state of magnetic body? or the chapter of "TGD based view about living matter and remote mental interactions" with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

A further lethal blow to the dark matter halo paradigm

The following is a comment to a FB posting by Sabine Hossenfelder giving a link to the most recent finding challenging the dark matter halo paradigm. The article titled "A whirling plane of satellite galaxies around Centaurus A challenges cold dark matter cosmology" published in Science can be found also in Archiv.

The halo model for dark matter encounters continually lethal problems as I have repeatedly tried to tell in my blog postings and articles. But still this model continues to add items to the curriculum vitae of the specialists - presumably as long as the funding continues. Bad ideas never die.

Halo model predicts that the dwarf galaxies around massive galaxies like Milky should move randomly. The newest fatal blow comes from the observation that dwarf galaxies move along neat circular orbits in the galactic plane of Centaurus A.

Just like the TGD based pearls-in-necklace model of galaxies as knots (the pearls) of long cosmic strings predicts! The long cosmic string creates gravitational field in transversal direction and the dwarf galaxies move around nearly circular orbits. The motion along long cosmic string would be free motion and would give rise to streams. The prediction is that at large distances the rotational velocities approach constant just as in the case of distant stars.

Somehow it seems impossible for colleagues to get the heureka that dark matter could be concentrated along string like structures. Why this is so difficult, remains a mystery to me. I have been now waiting this discovery (and many other discoveries) for more than two decades but in vain.

For TGD based model of galaxies see for instance this .

See the chapter TGD and astrophysics of "Physics in Many-sheeted Space-time".

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Superfluids dissipate!

People in Aalto University - located in Finland by the way - are doing excellent work: there is full reason to be proud! I learned from the most recent experimental discovery by people working in Aalto University from Karl Stonjek. The title of the popular article is Friction found where there should be none—in superfluids near absolute zero.

In rotating superfluid one has vortices and they should not dissipate. The researchers of Aalto University however observed dissipation: the finding by J. Mäkinen et al is published in Phys Rev B. Dissipation means that they lose energy to environment. How could one explain this?

What comes in mind for an inhabitant of TGD Universe, is the hierarchy of Planck constants heff =n×h labelling a hierarchy of dark matters as phases of ordinary matter. The reduction of Planck constant heff liberates energy in a phase transition like manner giving rise to dissipation. This kind of burst like liberation of energy is mentioned in the popular article ("glitches" in neutron stars). I have already earlier proposed an explanation of fountain effect of superfluidity in which superfluid flow seems to defy gravity. The explanation is in terms of large value of heff implying delocalization of superfluid particles in long length scale (see this).

Remark: Quite generally, binding energies are reduced as function of heff/h= n. One has 1/n2 proportionality for atomic binding energies so that atomic energies defined as rest energy minus binding energy indeed increase with n. Interestingly, dimension 3 of space is unique in this respect. Harmonic oscillator energy and cyclotron energies are in turn proportional to n. The value of n for molecular valence bonds depends on n and the binding energies of valence bonds decrease as the valence of the atom with larger valence increases. One can say that the valence bonds involving atom at the right end of the row of the periodic table carry metabolic energy. This is indeed the case as one finds by looking the chemistry of nutrient molecules.

The burst of energy would correspond to a reduction of n at the flux tubes associated with the superfluid. Could the vortices decompose to smaller vortices with a smaller radius, maybe proportional to n? I have proposed similar mechanism of dissipation in ordinary fluids for more than two decades ago. Could also ordinary fluids involve hierarchy of Planck constants and could they dissipate in the same manner?

In biology liberation of metabolic energy - say in motor action - would take place in this kind of "glitch". It would reduce heff resources and thus the ability to generate negentropy: this leads to smaller negentropy resources and one gets tired and thinking becomes fuzzy.

See the chapter Quantum criticality and dark matter.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Thursday, February 01, 2018

How did language emerge?

I encountered in FB a link to an article titled Unique mix of brain chemicals separates humans from other primates . The article inspired the following comments as a reaction, which are not so much about the chemistry but about what to my view goes outside chemistry.

Cultural evolution is what distinguishes us so sharply from our cousins. The evolution of social structures made possible by the emergence of language is certainly crucial for it. To me it is far from obvious whether this can be explained in terms of chemistry alone. My views are based on TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology and involve notions like magnetic body and hierarchy of Planck constants.

The notion of magnetic body and the emergence of language and cultural evolution

  1. The notion of magnetic body (MB) as intentional agent using biological body as motor instrument and sensory receptor is central in TGD based view about biology and neuroscience. Flux tubes serving as correlates of attention and making possible quantum entanglement and communications by dark photons give quite concretely rise to bonds between systems in various scales. In TGD Universe the notion of magnetic body in crucial for understanding life in general. The emergence of collective levels of consciousness involving large scale MBs would make possible cultural evolution and allow to understand the dramatic difference between humans and other animals.

  2. The hierarchy of Planck constants heff/h=n would be crucial. The larger the value of n, the larger the scale of quantum coherence. Cultural evolution would involve increase of n leading to a formation of large MBs characterizing collective levels of consciousness. The MBs of DNAs consisting of flux sheets going through DNA would combine to bigger structures assignable to organs, organisms, and even populations. This could make possible cultural evolution as emergence of higher level conscious entities with collective genome and collective gene expression.

  3. There might be also other deep differences at DNA level not visible at the level of chemistry. The braiding of magnetic flux tubes emanating from the intronic part of DNA could make possible topological quantum computations and a new kind of memory and this might led to the quantum leap to real cultural evolution: the portion of introns is largest for humans.

What internal speech could be?

The emergence of language and speech organs is certainly a revolutionary step in evolution. What language is at quantum level? What thoughts as internal speech are at deeper level.

  1. My own proposal is that internal speech has as neuronal correlates linear structures of activated neurons giving names for things and having linear flux tube sequences and corresponding quantum states as correlates at the level of MB. This does not however tell what internal speech is at deeper quantum level.

  2. Did thinking as internal speech precede ordinary speech or vice versa? If internal speech came first, one avoids the problem of understanding why only certain sounds have meaning as words. Assume that this is the case.

  3. Genes are fundamental in biology. Did internal speech evolve as one particular form of gene expression? TGD inspired model for music harmony based on 12-note scale realize as Hamilton's cycle at icosahedron (see this) leads to a model of genetic code predicting correctly the numbers of codons coding for given amino-acid and to the proposal that genes express themselves are controlled by signals consisting of sequences of 3-chords allowed by a particular bio-harmony with 64 3-chords (256 of bio-harmonies) (see this). Given harmony would define an emotional state, mood.

    Gene would be represented as a sequence of 3-chords - accompaniment for a song, melody. Melody would be a sequence of single notes of 12-note scale consistent with the bio-harmony. The sequence of 3-chords allowed by the harmony would define the emotional character of the "music piece". Harmony would be something which chemistry cannot explain.

  4. How the accompaniment and song were represented at gene level? The most natural guess is that both the notes of 3-chords of the harmony defining the mood and the melody were represented as dark light. This would be music of light consisting of dark photons rather than phonons: notes would have been analogs of laser beams along flux tubes characterized by frequency and duration.

    How singing was represented at neuronal level? My proposal is that it was represented as 2-D structure of activated neurons having connected magnetic flux tube network as correlate and representing the mental image. Perhaps the pitch and duration of the note served as 2 discrete coordinates in neuronal lattice (see this).

  5. It is said that right brain sings and left brain talks. These two modes of expression relate like function and its Fourier transform. Did (internal) singing precede (internal) speech? At neuronal level this is suggested by the fact that Alzheimer patient who has lost understanding of language and ability to talk can still understand singing and also sing. Indeed, 1-D linear flux tube structures representing thoughts splits as amylose splits the neuronal connection so that speech is not possible. 2-D structures survive even if some connections are split (see this). Note that these two modes relate to cognition and emotion. Emotion came first as indeed evolution of nervous system demonstrates.

How did spoken language emerge?

How do the words of spoken language transform to internal speech and vice versa? What distinguishes words from ordinary sounds?

  1. The piezoelectric property of bio-matter makes possible the transformation of light to sound: now light would consist of dark photons with energies E= hefff in bio-photon range (visible and UV) and frequencies f in the range of audible sound frequencies. Did this transformation somehow give rise to genuine auditory experience of internal song/speech? Did internal singing/speech transform to heard singing/speech by virtual sensory input from brain to ears?

    In TGD based model for sensory perception, hallucinations/psychedelic experiences, and imagination (see this) this kind of virtual sensory input is essential since sensory qualia are at the level sensory organs and the objects of perceptive field are standardized mental images, kind of artwork requiring resulting from pattern recognition involving a lot of forth-and-back signalling between brain and sensory organs by dark photons).

    We would experience mere virtual sensory input in dreams (REM), hearing voices from head, etc... Pineal gland ("third eye") receiving dark photons signals would receive internal speech and in presence of DMT would channel it to ears producing heard internal song/speech. Jaynes argues that what he calls bicameral consciousness preceded modern consciousness and was like that of schizophrenic and people heard their thoughts as voices in head and interpreted these voices as voices of Gods.

  2. Did speech and speech organs evolve from the attempts to mimic this genuinely heard internal singing/speech. This would answer the question why only certain kind of sounds have meaning as words. Did this attempt provide evolutionary pressure leading to the emergence of genes coding for speech organs and speech as a motor activity?

    Remark: An amusing analogy pops in mind: internal speech viz. internal song is like rap viz. ordinary singing dropping out much of the emotional content.

    This cannot be the whole story. Language learning is a social phenomenon involving mimicry. Modern human cannot learn to speak by listening only the voices in his head! One can however ask whether languages have some universal pattern. For instance, could very primitive languages depend only on species? What is the role of the collective consciousness: does it talk in the same manner to individuals of the group who then mimic this talk. Was the God of the bicamerals the collective consciousness of the group?

See the the article How did language emerge? or the chapter Quantum model of nerve pulse of "TGD and EEG".

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.